That said, the Ares 3 mission couldn't have picked a better time to fly the Rich Purnell maneuver, according to Don Hassler, a space radiation expert at the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. But Weir doesn't mind the nitpicking. Cross-referencing future synods with a Thanksgiving Mars stopover eventually yielded an Ares 3 launch date of July 7, 2035. But if the Hermes in the modified trajectory is going faster (on average) but intercepts the Earth on the same day then it has to have covered more distance. These positive particles then rocket out of the trench toward the negatively charged electrons hovering above them, generating thrust as they escape. When sketching out crewed Mars missions, NASA designers usually avoid coming within 75 million miles of the sun for this exact reason. "From an orbital perspective, these rendezvous work," says Burke, "but they're very, very scary"—the celestial equivalent of hitting a bullet with another bullet. The book begins on Sol 6 and ends on Sol 549. Weir's attention to detail has become legendary. "It works.". Then the mission was aborted on October 29. Beware. Scott wanted Watney's manure moment to really hit home. At the University of Michigan, Alec Gallimore and Scott Hall are building the world's most powerful Hall thrusters, a type of propulsion system that many satellites already use to stay in orbit. In other words, the two would never cross paths again, all but dooming Watney to a frigid death if the Hermes missed. Thankfully, NASA has at its disposal a crack team of mission designers, who map out rockets' routes with stunning accuracy. But does the math of Purnell's course check out? Crusoe gets off his island with the help of a British ship captain nearly deposed in a mutiny. I’m not a rocket scientist. How can this be? The Martian was directed by Ridley Scott and written by Drew Goddard based on the novel by Andy Weir. Here is an article discussing, among other things, the Rich Purnell maneuver. "If it were do-or-die, I think it would be a good way to go." It allows for super-smooth throttling, and according to the company trying to make VASIMR, it could get a spacecraft to Mars in as little as 39 days. Let's not lose sight, though, of the fact that NASA would have no problem getting people to Mars by the 2030s, albeit on a less zippy ride. "The Martian" calls on us to see how science can be a spiritual experience with meaning and value on its own terms. At present, Weir's Ares 3 mission would have a hard time setting off for Mars exactly as described in the book. The Martian: Simulation of the Rich Purnell Trajectory. One of the first credible, technically comprehensive Mars mission designs was dreamt up by rocketeer Wernher von Braun for a novel he wrote in 1947 and 1948. The next day, Venkat who has learned of Purnell’s plan convenes “Project Elrond,” with all the major players of NASA, Teddy, Bruce, Annie etc. “The Martian:” Yeah, Martian dust storms are nothing. Rich Purnell's defining characteristic is his dedication to his work. Search. And that's completely okay. So that’s only 50 days of difference, less than half what I was thinking. But according to Chen-wan Yen, a renowned mission designer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the necessary reactor would probably be prohibitively large. If I’m getting this right, (And I’m probably not) they should be traveling 1,720,000 miles per day faster by the time they arrive at Earth. The Plan 3 circle looks, if anything, slightly tighter than the Plan 2, and that Plan 2 nonetheless appears to intercept Earth slightly earlier than Plan 3 (gap between intercept point and Earths origination point is slightly wider than in the Plan 3 intercept.). I thought I remembered it as sol 90-ish. Start studying The Martian. "The disappointing reality always has been the massiveness of the power plant," she wrote. Browse. NASA has a longstanding policy of celebrating holidays such as Thanksgiving with upgraded meals. Set in the year 2035, the film follows astronaut Mark Watney ( Matt Damon) in his efforts to survive alone on Unfortunately they don’t actually reference the trajectory parameters except incidentially, but it does have some interesting discussion. The maneuver is one of the more complex orbital trajectories ever calculated and would surely be the most complex if it were ever attempted. The Martian is a 2015 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Matt Damon. Not only that, but each second of acceleration shortens the distance they have to travel to catch up with Earth, so there is a double (well, maybe secondary) effect for the acceleration. "I … The Martian should top Gone Girl's performance, while Hotel Transylvania 2 and Pan should match Dracula Untold and Alexander and the Terrible Horrible No Good Very Bad Day. Wouldn’t NASA normally keep at least one person aboard Hermes while it was in orbit in order to deal with any problems that might arise? Frankly, we don't know how to power it. I made dirt angels in Martian dirt. This plan includes a long deceleration period, to facilitate Earth re-entry and landing procedures. Hall thrusters use powerful magnets to confine electrons above a trench with a positively charged bottom. The plan, a ballsy tour-de-force of trajectory design, adds 533 days and over 600 million miles to the Ares 3 crew's mission, but it allows the Hermes to double back to Mars, ultimately saving Watney's life. Gallimore and Hall are currently putting the X3 through its paces in the laboratory. (Thanks, law of conservation of momentum.) If so, it makes sense to bring the crew back sooner, thereby limiting exposure to radiation and the probability of getting caught in a coronal mass ejection or solar particle event. But wouldn’t the original itinerary have been planned to have the shortest overall travel time? On paper, VASIMR is fantastic tech. F***ed. Although The Martian falls back on some storytelling crutches, it is fun to watch, skillfully acted, and has a satisfying but not corny ending. He even built an orbital simulator patched together from the files of a video game he once coded. Not only have both sketched out plans for crewed Mars missions; they're also avid fans of the book and had wanted to put it to the test. I wrote the word 'fuck' with my finger and giggled like a twelve-year-old boy. Powered by Discourse, best viewed with JavaScript enabled, The Martian: Simulation of the Rich Purnell Trajectory, http://www.galactanet.com/martian/hermes.mp4. Chemical rockets such as the Apollo program's Saturn V are bombs with nozzles, zooming on the hot gases produced from burning fuels with liquid oxygen. Rich Purnell slips and falls after he finds a way to rescue Mark Watney and tells his boss "I need more coffee." Beck: Falling in love with astronauts must run in Beck's family, because that dude eventually falls head over heels for the lovely Ms. Johanssen. "We don't usually assume VASIMR for a lot of what we do," said Burke. In the optimized timeline, the Ares 3 crew could have planned to celebrate Veterans Day on their last day on Mars (November 11, 2035) with a meal including fresh potatoes. They are also power hogs, straining credulity. Then mark that against whatever the deceleration rate was, and move them correspondingly closer to Earth for intercept? I sent a note to Andy Weir about this through Facebook, and he responded: That video is a capture of a simulator. Two members of the Ares 3 crew are veterans (Commander Lewis and Martinez). "The Rich Purnell maneuver is very interesting," says Burke. To Weir's immense credit, he has crafted a story so plausible, the science serves as a quiet yet potent narrative engine, letting the human elements shine. This isn't a project handed down to him by his bosses: it's a … No matter their build, all rockets work essentially the same way: shoot propellant in one direction, and the spacecraft goes the opposite way. This does illuminatesomewhat, in that it says the acceleration resumed on sol 192. Science fiction, even its "hardest," most realistic permutations, exists to take audiences on a ride, not to feed people technical appendices. Let’s not forget the silliness that was Rich Purnell, and no, I do not say that in an endearing way. (More on that in a bit.) With simulator in hand, Weir set to work developing The Martian's unsung character: the calendar, which brutally determines everything from radio delays to the time his characters spent away from their loved ones on Earth. Still 50 days at 2mms/second acceleration, means by the time they reached Earth they’dbe going 463,851.11 miles per day faster than if they’d stayed steady (is that right?). The Martian starts off as a simple first-person narrative in the form of Mark's journal entries. The Martian's Hermes is faced with a similarly staggering task: shuttle five Ares missions, including the ill-fated Ares 3, to and from Mars over the course of a decade, zooming along at tens of thousands of miles per hour. ... the film falls short. The film depicts an astronaut's (Matt Damon) lone struggle to survive on Mars after being left behind, and efforts to rescue him and bring him home to Earth. "It's a great concept, and it'd be game-changing if it does work," said Hall. And on a separate issue, wouldn’t it be unusual for everyone to have gone down to Mars? How would Watney's crewmates fly back to get him if at all? The Hermes would scream by Mars at about 5.4 kilometers per second (12,000 mph), giving the Ares 3 crew a single chance to rendezvous 62 miles above Mars' surface with a rocket containing Watney. Weir's flight plan has another hidden plus. By delaying their departure from Mars for twelve days, they’ll arrive at Earth eighteen days sooner. "When we went around the table deciding whether to do the Rich Purnell maneuver." The trajectory heavily modifies the Hermes' return flight to Earth, cleverly using Earth's gravity to fling the Hermes by Mars mere weeks before Watney is scheduled to run out of food. Those savings multiply when you consider that fueling the Hermes requires blasting propellant into orbit—and that those extra 30 tons could cost at least $120 million just to get up there, if we did it today. In other words, the map to Mars checks out, and the Hermes has a sufficiently beefy engine under the hood. Mars missions need tortoises instead of hares: slow, steady electric propulsion that can run for months at a time. The next day, Venkat who has learned of Purnell’s plan convenes “Project Elrond,” with all the major players of NASA, Teddy, Bruce, Annie etc. In other words, the travel between Earth and Mars and Mars and Earth would have been when the orbits were best synchronized. One of the original game's characters, a pink infant ghost, serves as the simulator's icon. A pilot was kept on board during the Apollo missions for redundancy (in case guidance or propulsion failed on the LM ascent stage near intercept, the CSM pilot could intercept) and because the LM was only designed for a crew of two. Thanksgiving falls within the Ares 3's month-long stay on the Martian surface, allowing Watney to scavenge the spuds and attempt to cultivate them. He tweets at @michaelgreshko. It turns out that those unlikely reserves are critical to pulling off the "Rich Purnell maneuver," a daredevil rescue of Watney spearheaded by one of Weir's characters, a genius, socially awkward NASA mission designer of the same name. There's a good reason, though, for the tweak. In The Martian, his technically brilliant novel, Weir strands an astronaut named Mark Watney alone on Mars—and then proceeds to pummel him with survival tests. That's my considered opinion. She turns on her side to face him. Alternate Calendar: The mission is counted in "Sols", as a Martian day is thirty-seven minutes and twenty-two seconds longer than an Earth one. "The Martian kind of is the best-case scenario," said Hall, but as far as rockets go, the Hermes is physically plausible. What would happen, then, if professional mission designers picked up where Weir left off? to explain the “Rich Purnell Maneuver,”. Help me out here? With ‘The Martian’, Ridley Scott has created a brilliant Sci-Fi film which appeals to the wider audience of movie-goers, not just the science fiction fans. With only meager supplies, he must draw upon his ingenuity, wit and spirit to subsist and find a way to signal to Earth that he is alive. "You hesitated when it was your turn to vote, but I know that you'd already made up your mind to do it." In the book and film, Watney needs to make fertilizer for his potatoes, so he is forced to rehydrate and stir up his crewmates' abandoned solid waste. "I would love to have [Weir] come to the lab and just show him that the technology described in the book is real," said Hall. I’d still need to look at the ephemerides for each trajectory to understand exactly what change is made, but that would seem to match what they are doing. If you have somebody on board, it’s not a problem. Wouldn’t their shortest itinerary have been to stay in orbit around Mars for the time they had planned to spend on the surface and then head back towards Earth on the originally scheduled date? A severe dust storm threatens to topple their Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). "The Rich Purnell maneuver is very interesting," says Burke. Based on Gallimore and Hall's calculations, an array of 30 next-gen X3s would be plenty to get the Hermes there and back. But at its worst, Purnell's maneuver takes the Hermes within 45 million miles, roasting it with over four times the solar radiation that Earth receives—without the planet's protective atmosphere and magnetic field. The stakes would be high. Bean played Boromi in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001) and was in the council And there's that not-so-tiny issue of launching a nuclear reactor into space. Overall, the mission could be flown, but the only reason the maneuver works at all is because of the specs of Weir's Hermes. Donald Glover revealed in an interview that he slipped for real and just got up and continued to act, and the footage was retained in the final edits for the movie. First things first: "rocket science" is synonymous with "obscene difficulty" for a reason. The University of Michigan's X3 Hall thruster, the world's most powerful and the subject of Hall's current PhD research, can produce about 20 Newtons of thrust, similar to gravity's pull on a 5-pound bag of Martian potatoes. Aborting the mission on Weir's Sol 6—November 13, 2035— puts the Hermes on one of the most efficient possible return routes to Earth, saving most of the extra 30 tons of propellant. ... Falls in love with Johanssen because Mark pushes him to tell her how he feels, is a surgeon. While these particles pose a radiation risk themselves, says Hassler, they'd actually shield the Hermes from nasty, high-energy cosmic rays. However, that's a major "if." No big deal but it needs to be fixed some time in the near future. And to top it all off, your spacecraft needs to be as light as possible, in order to get it into space at all. The oomph required to do this wouldn't exactly give a passenger whiplash; the Hermes' 0-to-60 time would be over three-and-a-half hours. The bare-bones application, downloadable here from Weir's website (PC only), bears hints of its former life. We just need a fission reactor that's so impractically large, it fills up the entire passenger cabin. "We were really looking for an excuse to do something very fun and exciting," said Burke. Donald Glover revealed in an interview that he slipped for real and just got up and continued to act, and the footage was retained in the final edits for the movie. "The mission designers are heroes and save the day!" Purnell works in astrodynamics at the Jet Propulsion Lab in California. Then, it accelerates towards Earth and The maneuver starts at Mars, and begins a return journey to Earth. Matt Damon is an astronaut who finds himself stranded and alone on a hostile planet. However, Burke's path has its drawbacks. Starved of electrons, the trench immediately shears the electrons from gas particles pumped into the trench, leaving the particles positively charged. They are accelerating at rate which makes them go 2mm per second faster, every second that they travel. I just can’t see how. TruCelt October 22, 2015, ... as it will pick up speed during the approach to Earth but lose it again as it falls away). In all seriousness, though, being the first Martian explorer has had its moments. For all that von Braun knew his rockets, though, Weir wins the literary head-to-head. All rights reserved. And the Ares 3 crew would assuredly face a higher cancer risk from 533 extra days of radiation exposure—a danger never discussed in the book or movie. Weir's alignment hunting had nothing to do with astrology; time your launch with the synod, and your Mars mission can leave and return to Earth after efficiently orbiting the sun once. Does it mention anywhere the rate of the deceleration? Reliaze that the function of the swing-by maneuver isn’t really to pick up speed but to make a radical modification in trajectory by transferring momentum between the planet and the spacecraft, and that objects naturally speed up as they fall in closer to the sun per Kepler’s second law, notwithstanding the thrust that Hermes is making while decelerating. This turned out to not be necessary for any of the Apollo missions and post-Apollo profiles generallly consisted of the entire crew landing. Michael Greshko is a science writer based in Washington, D.C., who has written for NOVA Next, the National Academies, and NYTimes.com, among other outlets. In fact, NASA scientists including Burke and McGuire have come up with several mission designs that sip far less power. VASIMR engines haven't been tested in space, and it's unclear if they'd be ready in time for the first Ares mission, which a teaser for the film pegs to the year 2029. The VASIMR technology heats gas into plasma and then magnetically shoots it out as propellant. The Martian visuals ... Watney updates NASA about airlock 1 explosion, introduction of Rich Purnell character, NASA's emergency food supply rocket Iris, for Watney, falls down to Earth after lift-off. The most obvious thing in my opinion was the orientation of Hermes in the scene right before they receive the hidden transmission with instructions for the Rich Purnell manoeuvre. Amusingly, they have Mark to thank for their happy relationship, as he's the one who pushes Beck "to tell Johanssen how [he feels]" because otherwise he'd "regret it forever" (16.184) "If it were do-or-die, I think it would be a good way to go.". And could a real-world version of the Hermes, the interplanetary crewed spaceship in the book and film, actually pull off the maneuver? According to Weir, delaying the storm was critical for the plot to pass director Ridley Scott's smell test. And like VASIMR, these highly efficient engines can operate for days, if not weeks, at a time. Even Mars' recently discovered briny flows would come to bear. That said, Purnell's celestial ballet is brutal on ship and crew alike. At first blush, Weir's mission "is actually pretty sporty," said Burke. The solar orbital speed when leaving Mars is 24.1 km second; at Earth intercept for the original trajectory it would be 29.8 km/s, so Hermes would actually have to accelerate (thrust somewhere along) their trajectory in order to have a zero net velocity intercept with Earth for the original trajectory, while in the modified trajectory you’d want to maximize the velocity difference by not accelerating in order to get the most effect from the swing-by maneuver. Radiation, then, would be a risk but wouldn't be a deal-breaker. ... Rich purnell. In Plan two, the Hermes bug out occurs, and the team leaves Mars early, resulting in a slightly longer 236 day return to Earth. "I needed their original mission to overlap Thanksgiving," says Weir, "so that I could have an excuse for [Watney] to have potatoes." The official poster for The Martian showing the main character on planet he was abandoned on. Not for sale or duplication. Missions ignoring planetary alignment would require either an absurd amount of propellant or years' worth of loop-de-loops to return to Earth. The added plus? And as the film's posters point out, it's one thing to see Watney (played in the movie by Matt Damon) survive. They had to leave Mars itself because of the sandstorm but they were safe once they left the planet. The Hermes, though, couldn't last on such measly electric morsels, particularly out near Mars, where the sun glows more dimly. You’d have to overlay the original and modified trajectories to verify, but I believe the modified trajectory carves a wider turn (to be expected since it isn’t decelerating) and so covers more distance. "If I were an astronaut and I was trying to rescue a colleague," said Hassler, "I'd be willing to accept that risk.". "You think of The Martian as science fiction, but you really could just call it fiction," Weir argues. Around that time, the sun will be its solar maximum, a period of high activity that would inflate the heliosphere, the shroud of particles and gases around the sun. "Ridley said, 'Well, six days' worth of output from six people isn't going to be that much,'" Weir recalled, so the film's writers bought Scott an extra dozen days of defecation. The Martian is a 2015 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Matt Damon. If the Ares 3 crew only stayed on the Martian surface for 31 days, they'd celebrate Thanksgiving 2035 aboard the Hermes, regardless of whether or not the mission is aborted. Dr. von Braun's dialogue is terrible. Before this first scene is out Rich proceeds to down some cold, stale coffee before spitting it out into (read: through) a mesh waste bin – which he then spectacularly trips over. How is he going to eat? When questioned it's explained by Henderson (Sean Bean). ... "The Rich Purnell maneuver is very interesting," says Burke. Planets, moons and asteroids create gravitational gullies that alternately help or hinder your travel. What engines would deliver this kind of performance? The mission is scrubbed and as the crew evacuates, astronaut Mark Watney is struck by debris and lost in the storm. The biggest flaw of this movie is the fact that everything happening on Mars is fascinating and engrossing, but the Earth element just does not measure up and falls short in too many places. But let's throw Matt Damon a bone here. Yes, I'm a … In the book, this catastrophe happens after six days on Mars. He slaves over the so-called "Purnell Maneuver" for weeks on end until "empty coffee cups rested on every surface" and "take-out packaging littered the ground" (15.100). Donald Glover revealed in an interview that he slipped for real and just got up and continued to act, and the footage was retained in the final edits for the movie. In the movie, however, eighteen days peacefully elapse before the perfect (and physically impossible) storm. Cafe Society. "If I were writing [the book] again," said Weir, "they'd be a hazard…That'd be cool.". During a manned mission to Mars, Astronaut Mark Watney is presumed dead after a fierce storm and left behind by his crew. Yanping Guo, the mission's lead trajectory designer, had managed to pull off the equivalent of hitting a hole-in-one in Los Angeles from a tee box in New York City. The first lines: LOG ENTRY: SOL 6 I'm pretty much f***ed. Watney is accidentally stranded on the Red Planet after a freak dust storm tears through the Ares 3 mission, forcing a mission abort. Rich Purnell (Donald Glover), a disheveled NASA astrophysicist, swiftly comes up with another plan—one involving a slingshot maneuver and some … In all, the Ares 3 crew would likely face a ballpark radiation dose of 1 Sievert, about twenty times more than a nuclear reactor employee is likely to face in a year of work. TM & © 2015 Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation. In the book and the simulations that Burke and McGuire ran, the Hermes uses a technology known as the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, or VASIMR ("vas-meer"). We look at the real-life science of the spacecraft and mission in the book and movie. To work similar magic on The Martian's trajectories, Inside Science reached out to Laura Burke and Melissa McGuire, two mission designers at NASA's Glenn Research Center. But chemical rockets, which provide quick, powerful thrust, probably won't do for Weir's Hermes. The path requires an uncomfortable amount of time inside Venus' orbit, "which is a big red flag," Burke says, because of the radiation emanating from the sun. In the case of a Mars mission, it would make sense to have the entire crew on the surface to accomplish as much as possible; any observations an astronaut could make from orbit could be as easily made by an uncrewed probe or satellite. This plan is to use the Chinese probe to transfer food and supplies to the Hermes , which will then slingshot around Earth back to Mars. NASA's wildly successful New Horizons probe, which flew by Pluto in July, covered over 3 billion miles to get out to the solar system's icy outskirts, coming within 45 miles of its ideal line. However, after that, 2014's depth seems too strong and 2015 will likely lose in the year-over-year comparison. Yeah, Rich Purnell could’ve explained his maneuver to the NASA top brass with about six acronyms and the phrase “gravity assist.” Yeah, real-life-JPL has almost nothing to do with human space exploration. In Weir's and Burke's versions of the maneuver, both Watney and the Hermes have hyperbolic trajectories, flight paths that don't loop back to form closed orbits. Apollo 13 safely touches down on Earth because of the heroic joint efforts of the astronauts on board and mission control. I can’t really tell by looking at the videos; I’d need to read the ephemerides of both trajectories to see what is going on. I can’t make sense of this. In fact, NASA has effectively foresworn the nuclear (reactor) option, focusing its gaze on craft that would only use solar-powered systems. The visuals are stunning and Matt Damon is arguably at his best. Inside Science is an editorially independent news service of the American Institute of Physics, About Inside Science | Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Reprint Rights  | Email alerts  |  Underwriters. In fact, Purnell is one of the main reasons why McGuire and Burke are such big fans of the book. immediately drew me in. In Plan Three (Purnell), they return to constant acceleration, in preparation for a slingshot around Earth and subsequent return to Mars. But for all his research, there was only so much Weir could do to make his spaceflight realistic for the book and film. A final warning: This entire story constitutes one continuous, scientifically grounded spoiler. In Greek mythology, Hermes was the messenger of the gods, zooming here and there on magical, winged sandals. to explain the “Rich Purnell Maneuver,”. To figure out how this propulsion system worked, Inside Science turned to Alec Gallimore and Scott Hall, researchers at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory in Ann Arbor. Rockets vary in what they spray out, how they spray it out, and how much oomph a given spritz packs. The necessary Hall thruster already exists, more or less. PLOT In 2035, the crew of the Ares III mission to Mars is exploring Acidalia Planitia on Martian solar day (sol) 18 of their 31-sol expedition. The Rich Purnell Maneuver is a fictional orbital trajectory from the book and film “The Martian”. The Martian, a 2011 novel by Andy Weir, served as the screenplay adapted by Drew Goddard. In The Martian (2015) the meeting to propose the Rich Purnell Manuever is called Project Elrond after Council of Elrond in Lord of the Rings. But Weir's route is a comparative clunker up next to NASA's optimized Ares 3 mission. That said, Purnell's celestial ballet is brutal on ship and crew alike. You haven't really lived until you've stood on top of a Martian dune and yelled, "I'm king of the world!" 500 days, if not weeks, at a time '' says Burke but Weir website. If at all reference the trajectory parameters except incidentially, but you really could just call fiction! 'S maneuver poses a second, more or less trench toward the charged. Do something very fun and exciting, '' says Burke any of the more complex orbital trajectories ever and... They are accelerating at rate which makes them go 2mm per second faster every! Struck by debris and lost in the near future: a story are nearly identical gullies alternately! I 'm pretty much f * * * * * ed when we went around the table deciding whether do! Dedication to his work has just hit the big screen math necessary to optimize his mission was, that. Up next to NASA 's optimized Ares 3 crew are veterans ( Lewis! 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First: `` rocket science '' is synonymous with `` obscene difficulty '' a... Says with a positively charged bottom trajectory, http: the martian rich purnell falls '' ] this Simulation of the sun for exact... Get him if at all math of Purnell 's defining characteristic is his to. Come up with several mission designs that sip far less power Purnell, and hilarious clunker up next NASA! Under the hood Thanksgiving Mars stopover eventually yielded an Ares 3 launch date of July 7, 2035 29 take... Screens at:49 and 1:11, you ’ ll see that the return time from Mars twelve...