In 1312, Khizr Khan Shamsul Haq was married Henceforth, "everybody was busy earning with earning a living so that nobody could even think of rebellion". [97] He also levied taxes on residences (ghari) and grazing (chara'i), which were not sanctioned by the Islamic law. However, historian Kishori Saran Lal dismisses this account as inaccurate. [155], Alauddin rarely listened to the advice of the orthodox ulama. Alauddin Khilji had become very insecure about his position during the last years of his life. He had three brothers: Almas Beg (later Ulugh Khan), Qutlugh Tigin and Muhammad. Kafur also raided the Pandya kingdom (1311), obtaining much treasure and many elephants and horses. [62], Meanwhile, a section of Alauddin's army had been besieging the fort of Siwana in Marwar region unsuccessfully for several years. Tomb of Alauddin Khilji He is buried at Mehrauli’s Qutb complex, in Delhi. Nevertheless, alcohol continued to be illegally produced in and smuggled into Delhi. During his last months, Alauddin had centralized power in his own hands and would listen to no advice and would tolerate no opposition. But the ruling passion of the Sultan was unbridled ambition. They were also unsatisfied at the execution of Abaji Mughal after an expedition to Mabar. [104], Alauddin maintained a large standing army, which included 475,000 horsemen according to the 16th-century chronicler Firishta. He started concentrating all the power in the hands of his family and his slaves. [24], Meanwhile, Ala-ul Mulk, who was Alauddin's governor at Kara, came to Delhi with all the officers, elephants and wealth that Alauddin had left at Kara. His imperialistic policy had turned the small kingdom into an Empire comprising almost the whole of India. "[156], Alauddin believed "that the Hindu will never be submissive and obedient to the Musalman unless he is reduced to abject poverty." Muslim rule in India was a period of constant, wanton and destructive wars. Alp Khan’s death cleared the way for the rise of Malik Naib Malik Kafur. [137] Historian Banarsi Prasad Saksena believes that the closeness between the two was not sexual. [83] According to historian Satish Chandra, Alauddin's reforms were based on his conception of fear and control as the basis of good government as well as his military ambitions: the bulk of the measures were designed to centralise power in his hands and to support a large military. Of Turkic ethnicity, he is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty. But despite all its defects, Alauddin had achieved much. Alauddin also took steps to curb adultery by ordering the male adulterer to be castrated and the female adulterer to be stoned to death. Alauddin's 30,000-strong cavalry, led by Malik Nayak, defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Amroha. Besides all his mad ambitions, nature had crammed the Sultan with a sense of practicability. [121], Alauddin's wives included Jalaluddin's daughter, who held the title Malika-i-Jahan, and Alp Khan's sister Mahru. [25] In 1298–99, another Mongol army (possibly Neguderi fugitives) invaded Sindh, and occupied the fort of Sivistan. [123] Alauddin had a son with Jhatyapali, Shihabuddin Omar, who succeeded him as the next Khalji ruler. Alauddin’s legacy. [64], The plunder obtained from Devagiri prompted Alauddin to plan an invasion of the other southern kingdoms, which had accumulated a huge amount of wealth, having been shielded from the foreign armies that had ransacked northern India. [141] He also started the construction of the Alai Minar, which was intended to be double to size of the Qutb Minar, but the project was abandoned, probably when he died. [6] Malika-i-Jahan was greatly infuriated by the fact that her husband had taken a second wife. On his arrival, Khizr Khan apologized to his father. The worsening condition of Alauddin had alarmed everybody in the palace. Under the Mamluks, Hindus were deprived of positions in higher bureaucracy. Although Zafar Khan managed to inflict heavy casualties on the invaders, he and other soldiers in his unit were killed in the battle. Haunting story of Jauhar. ", "Northern India under the Sultanate: Agrarian Economy", The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Delhi Sultanate, "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim states", The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alauddin_Khalji&oldid=1001854940, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2018, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Alauddunya wad Din Muhammad Shah-us Sultan, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 18:13. Death info about Alauddin Khilji Alauddin Khilji, suffering from ascites, spent his last time in extreme difficulties and died on 2 January 1316 AD. [66] After a month-long siege of Warangal, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra agreed to become a tributary of Alauddin, and surrendered a large amount of wealth (possibly including the Koh-i-Noor diamond) to the invaders. ", "Padmavati row: Who was Rani Padmavati's husband Maharawal Ratan Singh? He was killed by his beloved Khusrau Khan , an Islamicised Baradu (Hindu), who took the title of Nasir-ud-din in 1320 A.D. & became the only Hindu convert to become a Sultan of Delhi. He never asked for legal opinions about political matters, and very few learned men visited him. Meanwhile, the head of Jalaluddin was paraded on a spear in his camp before being sent to Awadh. [81] After facing the Mongol invasions and several rebellions, he implemented several reforms to be able to maintain a large army and to weaken those capable of organizing a revolt against him. [67], Meanwhile, after conquering Siwana, Alauddin had ordered his generals to subjugate other parts of Marwar, before returning to Delhi. He was the eldest son of Shihabuddin Mas'ud, who was the elder brother of the Khalji dynasty's founder Sultan Jalaluddin. Alauddin instituted a number of significant administrative changes, related to revenues, price controls, and society. Some 20,000 to 30,000 Mongols were killed and most of them had no knowledge of the plot. This irked Arkali Khan, her elder son and the governor of Multan. Raja Ramchandra of Devagiri died in 1311. When he reached Siri, Ruknuddin led an army against him. Alauddin was the most powerful ruler of his dynasty. The Sultan successfully reduced Chittor in 1303 which had not taken by any previous Sultan and which put an edge on the teeth of even a strong Emperor like Akbar. woes – the indifference of his wife and sons. about Rani Padmini, the queen of Chittorgarh, and Alauddin Khilji, the ruler of Delhi.According to media reports the film is portraying a love story between Padmini and Khilji. [40] Some later legends state that Alauddin invaded Chittor to capture Ratnasimha's beautiful queen Padmini, but most modern historians have rejected the authenticity of these legends. [118] Barani claims that according to "some people", Kafur murdered him. [120], Alauddin's tomb and the madrasa dedicated to him exist at the back of Qutb complex, Mehrauli, in Delhi. In a 1305 document, Khusrau mentions that Alauddin treated the obedient Hindu zamindars (feudal landlords) kindly, and granted more favours to them than they had expected. After reaching close to Kara, he directed Ahmad Chap to take his main army to Kara by the land route, while he himself decided to cross the Ganges river with a smaller body of around 1,000 soldiers. Alauddin Khilji who had seldom permitted anybody to tutor him with impunity, had owning to infirmity of age and disease become a tool in the hands of his favourite minister Hazar-Dinari. [37], In the winter of 1302–1303, Alauddin dispatched an army to ransack the Kakatiya capital Warangal. Alauddin was married to Malika-I-Jahan, but the … Deepika Padukone is not the first actress to play Padmavati on-screen? Courts to the east of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque, in Qutb complex added by Khalji in 1300 CE. While Muhammad Bin Tughlaq failed in most of his experiments, Alauddin succeeded in all his novel schemes. Notwithstanding the various measures, Alauddin Khilji had taken for strengthening his state and notwithstanding the brilliant victories Malik Kafur was achieving in the South as late as 1313, the government of Alauddin Khilji was gradually losing in strength and ability. [131] He rose rapidly in Alauddin's service, mainly because of his proven ability as military commander and wise counsellor,[116] and eventually became the viceroy (Na'ib) of the Sultanate. [82] Barani also attributes Alauddin's revenue reforms to the Sultan's desire to subjugate the Hindus by "depriving them of that wealth and property which fosters rebellion". But luckily, his almost mad schemes were toned down by his faithful counselor Malik Ala-ul-Mulk. The plot was discovered and Alauddin Khilji ordered a general massacre of Neo-Muslims. In addition, many non-Muslims served in his army. [115] He became infatuated with his slave-general Malik Kafur, who became the de facto ruler of the Sultanate after being promoted to the rank of viceroy (Na'ib). Qasr-i-Lal. Severe punishments were given for disloyalty. Alauddin’s beloved Mallika-i-Jahan Maharu was imprisoned in the Red Palace of Delhi. On As a result, Jalaluddin appointed him as the new governor of Kara in 1291. In response, Alauddin assaulted her. [151] Wassaf states that "The Muhammadan forces began to kill and slaughter on the right and on the left unmercifully, throughout the impure land, for the sake of Islam, and blood flowed in torrents. Alauddin Khilji remained indifferent because of his bad health. [10], After years of planning and preparation, Alauddin successfully raided Devagiri in 1296. After 1303, Alauddin became busy in economic and marketing reform. Malik Kafur was sent to crush the rebellion. to the daughter of Alp Khan, the governor of Gujarat and the brother of Alauddin's forces, led by Ulugh Khan, defeated the Mongols on 6 February 1298. [61] At Devagiri, Kafur achieved an easy victory, and Ramachandra agreed to become a lifelong vassal of Alauddin. The conditions seem to have changed a year later. To transcend the victories of Alexander the Great and to found a new religion like the Prophet of Islam were the two burning desires of his soul. • According to some other historians, Alauddin died after a chronic illness. Meanwhile, he himself led another army to conquer Chittor, the capital of the Guhila kingdom ruled by Ratnasimha. They were to be killed wherever they are found. [15], Alauddin resumed his march to Delhi in the second week of October 1296, when the Yamuna river subsided. These victories forced the Yadava king Ramachandra, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra, and the Hoysala king Ballala III to become Alauddin's tributaries. [145] Barani's uncle Alaul Mulk convinced him to drop this idea, stating that a new religion could only be found based on a revelation from god, not based on human wisdom. Events After the Death of Ala-ud-din: The day after the death of Ala-ud-din Khilji, Malik Kafur assembled the nobles and produced a fake will of the deceased King, in which he had appointed Shahab-ud-din Umar, the youngest son, his successor. The Sultan had lived an extremely tiresome and busy life and from the disorders of dropsy and from the fatal effects of the poison administered by Malik Kafur, Alauddin found refuge in a silent death on 6 January 1316. Jalaluddin's companions were also killed, while Ahmad Chap's army retreated to Delhi. On the contrary, Alauddin's Dipalpur governor Malik Tughluq regularly raided the Mongol territories located in present-day Afghanistan. [129], Malik Kafur, an attractive eunuch slave captured during the Gujarat campaign,[130] caught the fancy of Alauddin. During his absence, the influence of Alp Khan and Malika-i-Jahan began to increase and the latter began preparation for the marriage of her second son Shadi Khan with the second daughter of her brother. According to Sheikh Bashir Diwana, Alauddin’s government had no stable foundations and the Khilji dynasty was easily supplanted because of the inherent weakness of the Alai rule. Instead of attacking the heavily guarded city of Delhi, the invaders proceeded south-east to the Gangetic plains along the Himalayan foothills. [109] Alauddin's administration strictly punished the violators, and ensured non-availability of alcohol not only in Delhi, but also in its surrounding areas. [97], Alauddin implemented price control measures for a wide variety of market goods. [6] Once, while Alauddin and Mahru were together in a garden, Jalaluddin's daughter attacked Mahru out of jealousy. [3] Over the next two days, Alauddin formed a provisional government at Kara. Alauddin obtained the governorship of Kara in 1291 after suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin, and the governorship of Awadh in 1296 after a profitable raid on Bhilsa. Khilji greatly expanded the empire that he inherited from his uncle, Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji, after killing him. [88] He imposed a 50% kharaj tax on the agricultural produce in a substantial part of northern India: this was the maximum amount allowed by the Hanafi school of Islam, which was dominant in Delhi at that time.[89]. he never thought of releasing him and a large number of innocent men Alauddin’s barbarous punishment of traders, the atrocities of Nusrat Khan on the people of Delhi and the callousness of the Sultan in killing his kith and kin are simply appalling. However, this account appears to be hearsay. Sultan Alauddin was greatly moved and from that day, he gave up wine and prohibited alcohol among the people and undertook various reforms. The most formidable battles were fought either against the Mongols or against the Rajputs and in most of the campaigns, Sultan was present personally. He further states that Alauddin once thought of establishing a new religion. In 1296, Alauddin raided Devagiri, and acquired loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin. Almost all the members of the palace were the disciples of  Sheikh Nizamuddin. [53], In December 1305, the Mongols invaded India again. [162], Kharataragaccha Pattavali, completed in 1336–1337, details atrocities on Jains under his reign including destruction of a religious fair in 1313 while capturing Jabalipura (Jalor). However, Amir Khusrau mentions a Hindu officer of his army despatched to repel the Mongols. He defeated the Deccan princes, levied rich tributes upon them, but at the same time left them with their possessions. Account books were audited and even small discrepancies were punished. These temples included the ones at Bhilsa (1292), Devagiri (1295), Vijapur (1298–1310), Somnath (1299), Jhain (1301), Chidambaram (1311) and Madurai (1311). He thirsted for immortality. He was born in Delhi in 1266 AD (and hence an Indian; not a foreign invader) and ruled as Sultan of Delhi from 1296 AD – 1316 AD. Mubarak took the title of Al Wasiq Bilah & declared himself the Khalifa. 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